Thyroid gland is endocrine gland in vertebrates, storing iodine and producing iodine-containing hormones involved in the regulation of metabolism and growth of individual cells and the organism as a whole - thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4) and triiodothyronine ( T3) vSynthesis of ...
Thyroid gland is endocrine gland in vertebrates, storing iodine and producing iodine-containing hormones involved in the regulation of metabolism and growth of individual cells and the organism as a whole - thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4) and triiodothyronine ( T3) vSynthesis of these hormones occurs in follicular epithelial cells, called thyrocytes. Calcitonin, a peptide hormone which is also synthesized in the thyroid gland - in parafollicular or C-cess. The thyroid gland is located in the neck under the larynx in front of the trachea. In humans, the form of thyroid glands reminds butterfly which consists of right and left lobes connected via thyroid isthmus.
As it was mentioned above thyroid gland produces two main hormones T3(triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). Usually thyroid gland produces nearly 80% T4(thyroxine) and about 20% T3(triiodothyronine). Thyroid hormones participate in regulation almost of all physiological processes in the organism such as activity of metabolic reactions, proteins synthesis, mental and physical activity, functional condition of cardiovascular, respiratory and reproductive system.
Along with somatotrophic hormone, triiodothyronine and thyroxine participate in regulation of growth and development of locomotor system, water-salt balance and biosynthesis of certain vitamins.
Thyroid gland is prone to a various pathological processes which cause its dysfunction and thus affect many organs and system in the human organism. The thyroid diseases are usually associated with changes in production of hormone, increased thyroid growth, formation of lumps or nodules and tryroid cancer. The most widespread diseases of the thyroid gland include:
Goiters - a diseases characterized by enlarged thyroid. An enlarged thyroid can indicate a numerous of different thyroid pathologies, including and cancer, patients should ask their health care provider for an examination. While enlarged thyroid is a common symptom associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, it may also be a result of deficiency of iodine in the nutrition. Lack of iodine affects nearly 1/5 of all human beings worldwide.
Enlarged thyroid symptoms include: compressing of vital structures of the neck such as trachea he esophagus making breathing and swallowing rather difficult. Enlarged thyroid may also result in regular cough, feeling shortness of breath, hoarse voice, feeling fullness in the neck, feeling like meal gets stuck in the throat.
Enlarged thyroid is treated by prescribing thyroid hormone preparations containing T3 (Liothyronine) and T4 (Levothyroxine) hormones.
Another Thyroid gland diseases include:
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The symptoms of Thyroiditis include fever, pain. The most common types of the diseases are Hashimoto's Thyroiditis , De Quervain's Thyroiditis, Silent Thyroiditis.
L-Thyroxine 50 Berlin-Chemie is a medicine used for the treatment hypothyroidism associated with decreased production of thyroid hormones.
Synthroid (levothyroxine sodium) is a synthetic levogyrate isomer of thyroxine (natural thyroid gland hormone). After a partial conversion to triiodothyronine in the liver and kidneys it enters the body's cells where regulates development and growth of tissues and activate metabolic processes
Levoxyl is a synthetic analogue of thyroid hormone (thyroxine). Pharmacological effect of Levoxil is aimed to replace the deficiency of thyroid hormones. Mechanisms of metabolic effects include receptor binding to the genome
The action of levothyroxine is identical to the action of natural thyroid hormone - thyroxine which is produced by the thyroid gland. After biotransformation in the body in liothyronine (in the liver and kidneys),